Exciting New Product from LifeSense®
GlucoLOGIC™ Lemon Iced Tea

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Introducing LifeSense® GlucoLOGIC™ Tea

GlucoLOGIC™ Tea contains Reducose® and all its benefits, in a bioactive, convenient, proprietary, high potency, high purity, instant tea delivery vehicle.

  • Drink as a tea alone, or add dissolved tea to smoothies and other liquids.
  • For maximum benefit, consume at the same time as a carbohydrate-rich meal.
  • The tea is a bioactive delivery vehicle for Reducose® since black tea is rich in healthy polyphenols, associated with protection from chronic diseases. Black tea is derived from the leaves of the Camellia sinensis, the most popular tea in the world. Unlike other teas, black tea leaves undergo an extensive oxidation process, exposing cells inside leaves to oxygen, giving black tea benefits not seen with green tea (no oxidation). Theaflavins develop during this oxidation, accounting for 3-6% of the polyphenols in black tea. Theaflavins and flavonoids can reduce the risk of heart disease. Tea drinking in general is associated with reduced risk of stroke. The caffeine is about half that in coffee, and with the amino acid L-theanine, can help with alertness and focus. Unsweetened black tea also improves blood sugar, so it is a logical delivery vehicle for Reducose.
  • Our instant tea also contains the prebiotic, fructan and soluble fiber, inulin. Inulin is published to improve digestive/gut health, improve constipation, control diabetes by decreasing blood sugar, and aid in weight loss. Prebiotics provide food for the microbes in the large intestine which can improve the gut microbiome. Basis these properties, inulin is also a logical ingredient to include with Reducose.

Avoid High and Low Energy Swings with our Delicious Instant Tea!

Following years of product development work, we are currently the only company in the world with an active dose of Reducose® in a tea format.

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Detailed Information

One serving of our tea provides a clinically meaningful dose of Reducose® (11 mg 1-deoxynojirimycin [DNJ]) in every 3 g serving of instant black tea to partially inhibit the digestive enzyme alpha-glucosidase. DNJ is a glucose analog, an imino sugar. This enzyme breaks down sucrose and carbohydrates into glucose. So by partially inhibiting this process, blood glucose is decreased after a meal. We are the only company to provide Reducose® in the convenience of a healthy black tea. Hard core science meets Ancient Wisdom: That’s GlucoLOGIC™

Mulberry leaves: source of Reducose® and other bioactives

Mulberry plant (Morus alba L) leaves are a food and a traditional Chinese medicine in China. Its use was first recorded in Divine Husbandman’s Classic of Materia Medica (Shennong Bencao Jing; 200–220 CE). Mulberry leaf has been utilized for treating fever, dizziness, headache, cough, and other diseases since ancient times. The famous pharmacologist Li Shizhen recorded in his Compendium of Materia Medica (Bencao Gangmu: 1590) that mulberry leaf can be used to treat wasting and thirsting (xiao ke) syndrome, typical of diabetes. Used for centuries around the world as a food and animal feed.

What is Reducose:

  • Proprietary vegetarian water extract of white mulberry leaves (Morus alba), generated without solvents, our Hero Ingredient
  • Rich in iminosugars
  • Heat and pH stable, water-soluble, active at low doses
  • Non-sweet; slightly malty taste smell and flavor that does not negatively impact taste, smell or appearance of foods
  • The safety of Reducose® has been extensively researched
  • Reducose® has won multiple awards internationally. Ingredient of the Year in the Healthy Aging Category 2020
  • In 2020 Reducose® was nominated as a finalist for the 2020 NutraIngredients Awards USA for Ingredient of the Year in Healthy Aging
  • Reducose® is 5X more concentrated than Mulberry leaf solvent extracts on market

How GlucoLOGIC™ with Reducose® Works

Reducose® tackles the root cause of high blood sugar spikes by blocking up to 40% of the digestion of sugars and other carbs. As you get up to 40% less glucose in your blood, your body produces less insulin, which is healthy. When the stomach digests food, the carbohydrate (sugars and starches) in the food breaks down into another type of sugar, called glucose. The stomach and small intestines absorb the glucose and then releases it into the bloodstream. Only a small 250 mg dose does the job and this is backed by 6+ human clinical studies.

Consumer Benefits of GlucoLOGIC™ with Reducose®

  • Feel better and balanced
  • Fits simply and naturally in your life
  • Works immediately with observable results
  • Efficacy can be measured and tracked with Continuous Glucose Monitors (CGM)
  • Take back control and love your food
  • Active herbal ingredient based on clinically-proven white mulberry extract (Morus alba Linn) in a healthy tea
  • Clinically proven: small dose efficacy supported by 8 human clinical studies

Avoid High and Low Energy Swings with our Delicious Instant Tea!

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GlucoLOGIC™ with Reducose® Benefits on Blood Sugar

  • Turns fast sugars and other carbs to slow ones
  • Puts you back in the driver’s seat of the glucose roller coaster
  • Consume high carb foods without blood sugar roller coaster ride
  • Worry less about hidden sugars and carbs
  • Biohack your blood sugar
  • Healthy glucose absorption flattens glycemic curve for sustained energy, by reducing blood sugar spikes and high/low energy swings
  • Supports healthy blood glucose by 40% blocking digestion of sugar and carbohydrate
  • Lowers post-meal blood sugar and insulin responses up to 40%


Benefits of GlucoLOGIC™ with Reducose® Beyond Blood Sugar

  • Supports multiple health benefits. Triggers a cascade of effects that are beneficial to metabolic health: healthy microbiome, weight management, healthy aging, Low-GI lifestyle, women’s health, sports performance, cognitive function
  • Enhances satiety, promotes weight management, and provides sustained energy
  • Reduce hunger, food cravings, and mood swings after a meal
  • Helps enter and maintain ketosis (works with our LifeSense® MCT oils and powders)
  • Undigested carbs fool our body into thinking we are fuller, decreasing food intake


GlucoLOGIC™ with Reducose® Benefits Everyone

It can be difficult to maintain a balanced, healthy diet with many people consuming high glycemic index carbohydrates (fast carbs) in large quantities.  For the general public, high GI carbs are unhealthy promoting fat insulin resistance, fat storage, hunger, weight gains, and low energy (after the initial glucose high).

It is not always possible to maintain a low GI/low calorie diet (think eating out and consuming alcohol with friends). Reducose® is our friend. It not only prevents some glucose calories from into the body, it lowers insulin response after consuming carbohydrates and turns high GI foods into low GI ones (flattening the glucose curve), increasing fat burning mode (with less need to reduce calories). Reducose® may stimulate the ileal brake, increasing satiety and trigger the second meal effect, further supporting healthy weight loss. By flattening your blood glucose curves, you can consume more calories and lose more fat compared to people who eat fewer calories but do not concentrate on flattening their glucose curves.

GlucoLOGIC™ with Reducose® Benefits Diabetics

Diabetes is a rapidly growing health concern with 425 million adults affected globally. Prediabetes incidence  is even higher with 390 million prediabetic adults in China alone. Two trends are converging with these increasing numbers and related healthcare costs: governments are actively working to increase consumer awareness about healthy nutrition and reduction of high-glycemic foods; and secondly, there is a new generation of non-invasive wearable devices to continuously monitor blood glucose status (Continuous Glucose Monitors, CGM).

Appendix: Further Details

Glycemic Index explained

The speed in which a food is digested to glucose is formally known as the “Glycemic index” (GI). The GI index ranks food from 1-100. The lower the GI, the slower and lower that food will impact blood glucose levels, and this is healthier. Sugar is actually a medium GI carbohydrate. On a weight basis, refined starches have 2X the glycemic impact of sugar. Conversely, a low GI diet leads to low and slow changes in postprandial blood sugar levels and have been clinically demonstrated to improve blood sugar profile, blood lipid profile, and insulin resistance. A 50 gram bowl of starchy rice increases blood glucose faster and higher than two cans of soft drink, rich in sugar!

Carbohydrate digestion basics

Our stomach and intestine digest food carbohydrate (sugars, starches) into simple sugar monosaccharides known as glucose and fructose. Absorbed glucose is then released into the bloodstream, taken up by tissues providing energy; or stored as glycogen (mainly in the liver and muscle). Your blood sugar level normally rises after you eat. A few hours later, blood sugar dips as insulin moves glucose into cells in organs.  This is often referred to as the “blood sugar roller coaster”. 

Foods affect blood sugar differently

Dietary carbohydrates are classified as either sugars, starches or fibers and are defined by their ease of digestibility and the length of their saccharide chain (the number of basic carbohydrate units such as glucose). These chains can vary in length from short chains of two units (disaccharides), such as sucrose or table sugar, to chains containing hundreds of thousands of saccharide units such as starch and fiber. Starches are further classified based on their speed of digestion: rapidly digestible starch (RDS); slowly digestible starch (SDS); or resistant starch (RS).

Not all carbohydrates are created equal. Foods higher in sugar or carbohydrates raise blood sugar levels faster and higher. Fast carbohydrates are made up of small chains and break down into blood sugar faster and more easily, increasing our blood glucose more. Consuming too many fast carbs can lead to an increased risk of type 2 diabetes, obesity, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease. Moreover, when the majority of your diet is made up of fast carbohydrates, your blood sugar will rise and then fall quickly, causing your body to crave more fast/high GI foods to try and rebalance your blood sugar. Examples of fast carbohydrates are processed carbohydrates such as white breads, cereals, white rice, noodles, sugars, low fiber fruits and some starchy vegetables. Slow carbohydrates/low GI foods cause more gentle blood sugar fluctuations, and provide energy over a longer period of time. Low GI foods also help support a healthy BMI, bodyweight and lifestyle. Slow carbohydrates include most vegetables, whole grains, seeds, nuts, beans, peas and legumes. Replacing refined grains with whole-grains and adding more beans and legumes to your diet is an easy way to up the amount of slow carbohydrates in your diet.

Rapidly digestible starch (RDS) is quickly broken down and causes a rapid increase in our blood sugar levels after a meal. RS (acts as a soluble fiber) and fiber escape small intestine digestion, passing into the large intestine to become microbial food. RS have many health benefits including better insulin sensitivity, lower blood sugar levels, increased satiety, reduced appetite and weight loss by improving satiety, and increasing friendly gut bacteria.

How GlucoLOGIC™ with Reducose® works (technical)

Our Mulberry leaf extract reduces digestive absorption of high glycemic sugars and other carbohydrates by up to 40%. The active components in mulberry leaf responsible for this effect are alkaloids, flavonoids, polysaccharides, amino acids, simple phenylpropanoids, phenols, and other hypoglycemic components. The most important alkaloid in mulberry leaf responsible for this benefit is 1-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ). DNJ is an effective partial inhibitor of  the digestive enzyme a-glucosidase, which decreases formation of food-derived glucose by competitively inhibiting binding of natural substrates to the enzyme’s active site. In addition, DNJ inhibits intestinal glucose absorption (glucose uptake into the blood) and accelerates hepatic glucose metabolism by directly regulating expressions of proteins involved in glucose transport, glycolysis, and gluconeogenesis.

Avoid High and Low Energy Swings with our Delicious Instant Tea!

Following years of product development work, we are currently the only company in the world with an active dose of Reducose® in a tea format.

Buy Now >

GlucoLOGIC™ with Reducose® Benefits Beyond Healthier Blood Sugar (Technical)

Ileal brake

Reducose® decreases digestion of carbohydrates lowering postprandial blood glucose. This triggers a cascade of positive health effects including healthy body weight and BMI. The undigested carbohydrates remain in the gut lumen travelling down the small intestine to the ileum (lower part of small intestine). Foods in the ileum trigger the “ileal brake”. The ileal brake is a nutrient-triggered inhibitory feedback mechanism inducing satiety.  When macronutrients bind to receptors in the ileum, the ileal brake is triggered resulting in a slowing of upper gut motility, reduced appetite, and delayed gastric emptying. 

Second meal effect

Linked to the ileal brake is the second meal effect,  where the GI of one meal influences the glycemic response to a subsequent meal. Having a low GI intake in one meal lowers the postprandial glycemic response in a subsequent meal. This effect is mediated via incretin hormones (GLP-1 and GIP) and fermentation of undigested carbohydrates to short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) by microbes. The benefits of the second meal effect, observable as a lower postprandial glucose response, extends to weight management.  The second meal effect increases the rate of fat oxidation and favors the use of fat to meet the body’s energy requirements, while people who eat high GI meals favor fat storage and the use of carbohydrates for energy. The glucose response after eating the initial low GI meal, and the resultant lower glucose response from the second meal effect results in the body’s insulin response being moderated down.

GlucoLOGIC™ with Reducose® benefits on insulin response account for many benefits

Insulin’s primary function is to stimulate cells to remove glucose from the blood to maintain glucose homeostasis. When blood glucose drops too low, glucagon stimulates the release of glucose stored in the liver into the blood. Together, insulin and glucagon, ensure cells have enough energy to function. Glucose is essential for our bodies as an energy source, and we have systems to process and store glucose for future use. The liver and muscles are the primary stores (glucose stored as glycogen), and we can store around 15 g of glycogen per kg body weight (about 1 kg/70 kg individual), and this is facilitated by insulin. As glucose is an important energy source for the body, any excess glucose is stored initially as glycogen, and then as fat, a process mediated by insulin. High GI foods cause sharp spikes in blood glucose, with a resultant excess production of insulin.  Excess insulin puts the body into fat storage mode and calories that would normally be used immediately for energy as carbohydrates are now stored as fat. In order to lose weight, it is thus important to have a moderate insulin response. This is achieved through eating low GI meals, and data shows that low GI meals not only reduce the glycemic response, but also improve appetite control and enhance fat oxidation (burning). Insulin pushes glucose into adipose tissue because 25% of glucose transporters are in fat; 75% of transporters are in muscle. If we are eating the right amount of calories, the energy stored in adipose tissue gets burned. But if we eat too many calories, or eat high GI foods, the carbohydrate builds up adipose fat. Sugary foods also contain fructose, which is processed by the liver. When there are excess sugar and fructose calories, the fructose will be converted and stored as fats rather than being converted to glucose. When blood glucose is continuously high, insulin levels are chronically elevated, and losing weight is harder. When we decrease our blood glucose level, insulin drops, and insulin reduction is essential and precedes weight loss.

It is not always possible to maintain a low GI/low calorie diet (think eating out and consuming alcohol with friends). Reducose® is our friend. It not only prevents some glucose calories from into the body, it lowers insulin response after consuming carbohydrates and turns high GI foods into low GI ones (flattening the glucose curve), increasing fat burning mode (with less need to reduce calories). Reducose® may stimulate the ileal brake, increasing satiety and trigger the second meal effect, further supporting healthy weight loss. By flattening your blood glucose curves, you can consume more calories and lose more fat compared to people who eat fewer calories but do not concentrate on flattening their glucose curves.

Additional tips on eating to reduce the glycemic impact of foods:

Eat your food in the right order: The best way to lower glucose spikes is to eat vegetables first then protein and fats, and carbohydrates last. Carbs and sugar are quickly broken down into glucose and absorbed into the blood stream causing a rapid spike in blood glucose. If carbs and sugars are consumed on their own (naked carbs) the sugar spike will be even higher. Fat and protein take longer to digest than carbs and delay gastric emptying, slowing down the rate at which carbs will exit the stomach. Adding fiber, protein and fats to carbs (dressed carbs) thus decreases blood glucose spikes and is beneficial. Eating naked carbs,  makes you feel initially full, but you become hungry again when blood sugar rises and falls.

Over time, high intake of sugar damages hunger and fullness cues and heighten cravings for sugar. Fiber, healthy fats, and protein shorten glucose spikes in response to carbs and sugars. Protein, healthy fats, and non-starchy vegetables keep us fuller for longer because they take longer to digest with minimal impact on blood sugar. A simple way to dress carbs is to add a green starter or vegetables before meals, and combine snacks with cheese or yogurt; or eat a snack with nuts and seeds.

Fiber from vegetables does not get broken down into sugars and passes straight to the gut. Fiber also slows digestion and reduces availability of enzymes that break down carbs into glucose, so some glucose is not absorbed (passes to the colon). As fiber is not digested it moves through the intestines as a viscous mesh, trapping other nutrients (e.g., fats, lowering caloric intake of the meal), triggers release of satiety-inducing hormones (makes you feel fuller), and becomes converted to short chain fatty acids (SCFA) by gut bacteria (lowers blood glucose).

A protein-rich, restricted carbohydrate breakfast enables a low GI/fat burning mode (can be combined with our MCT oils and powders). This provides sustained energy and satiety (less hunger between meals). Even with a high GI lunch, blood sugar responses will be milder if you started your day in low GI mode. This response is known as the second meal effect, where the GI of one meal influences the glycemic response of a subsequent meal. The second meal effect not only benefits a lower postprandial (=post-meal) glucose response but also extends to weight management.

Eat your sweet treats after your main meal: After eating something sweet we feel an initial energy boost as the feel-good hormone dopamine is released from the brain. Sweet food contains sucrose, comprised of fructose and glucose molecules. Sweet foods cause a spike in glucose and fructose. Glucose can be stored in the liver and muscles as glycogen, but fructose can only be stored as fat. Eating something sweet at the end of a meal will minimize the resulting glucose spike compared to eating something sweet as a snack away from meals on an empty stomach. This is because carbs raise our blood sugar but if we consume them after our veggies, fat, and protein they have a smaller effect on our blood glucose.

Eat fewer, large meals, rather than snacking: Recent studies show we can increase our metabolic flexibility and lose weight by eating larger meals less often rather than snacking every few hours. This is because after a meal is consumed (the post-prandial state), we are in a fat-burning mode (insulin is low, glucagon is high). Also, once we start snacking, we crave the pattern of frequent snacking.

Exercise after you eat: flatten the glucose curve of a meal by exercising after eating. If we remain sedentary after eating, our glucose will cause a spike. If we exercise, the glucose in our blood is taken up by muscles and the glucose spike is reduced. We have up to 70 minutes after eating to gain the benefits from exercise and lessen our glucose curve. Exercise flattens the glucose spike without increasing our insulin levels because if our muscles are contracting, they don’t need insulin to take up glucose (particularly important for diabetics). A ten-minute walk is enough to gain the benefit. Exercising before a meal also reduces blood glucose spikes, but exercise after a meal flattens the glucose curve more. Exercising after a meal, reduces cravings, eases mood swings and minimizes afternoon fatigue. With steady blood sugar, cells are not overloaded with insulin and fat is burned for energy between meals, promoting weight loss. Making simple changes to how we eat, promotes weight loss, without giving up the foods we love.

Tools to flatten blood sugar curve:

  • Have a small salad or plate of veggies and healthy fats before each meal
  • Eat a savory breakfast rather than a sweet breakfast
  • Have your dessert or sweet treat after a meal, not on an empty stomach
  • Never eat sugar or carbs on an empty stomach
  • Choose whole fruit over juice to get the benefit of fiber
  • During a meal, eat vegetables first, then proteins, and sugars and carbs last
  • Never eat naked carbs, instead always eat with them with healthy fats and protein
  • After each meal (within 70 minutes of eating), go for a 10-minute walk.

Reducose® lowers blood glucose and glycemic index of foods: graphs from published studies

In a clinical trial conducted by Phynova, a single 250 mg dose of Reducose® was incorporated directly into common dietary carbohydrates and given to healthy individuals. Reducose® reduced glycemic index of test carbohydrates. Greatest effect observed with maltodextrin, a long chain carbohydrate made from corn starch, where Reducose® lowered GI 55%. Findings were replicated in a second clinical trial (Wang et al., 2018). This reduction in glycemic index of foods results in lowering in postprandial blood glucose levels.

In two published clinical studies, Reducose® lowered postprandial blood glucose and postprandial plasma insulin following a carbohydrate challenge (sucrose in one study; maltodextrin in the other). Reducose® lowered postprandial blood glucose levels up to 42% (Lown et al., 2017; Thondre et al., 2021). Reducose® also lowered postprandial insulin response by 41%. There were no adverse events and no difference between Reducose® and placebo in incidence or severity of GI side-effects.

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Articles on the web on blood sugar and Reducose

  1. Reducose: helping maintain healthy blood sugar levels Link
  2. Technical detailed video on reductase Link
  3. Science of Reducose® Link
  4. Not all carbs are created equal Link
  5. Flatten glucose curve Link

Reducose® published papers:

  1. Mafauzy et al., 2022. A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Crossover Study to Evaluate the Effect of a Natural Powder Blend (Mulberry Leaf Extract [MLE], Vitamin D, Chromium, and Fiber) on Postprandial (PP) Metabolic Response in Type 2 Diabetes (T2D). Diabetes; 71 (Supplement 1): 41-LB. Link.
  2. Gheldof et al., 2022.  Effect of different nutritional supplements on glucose response of complete meals in two crossover studies. Nutrients; 14: 2674. Link
  3. Thondre et al, 2021. Mulberry leaf extract improves glycaemic response and insulaemic response to sucrose in healthy subjects: results of a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Nutr Metab; 18:41.  Link
  4. Wang et al, 2018. Mulberry leaf extract reduces the glycemic indexes of four common dietary carbohydrates. Medicine(2018) 97:34. Link
  5. Li et al., 2018. Safety evaluation of mulberry leaf extract: acute, subacute toxicity and genotoxicity studies. Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol.; 95: 220-226. Link
  6. Lown et al, 2017. Mulberry extract improves glucose tolerance and decreases insulin concentrations in normoglycaemic adults: results of a randomized double-blind placebo controlled study. PLOS ONE. Link
  7. Liu et al, 2016. Prevention effects and possible molecular mechanism of mulberry leaf extract and its formulation on rats with insulin sensitivity. PLOS ONE. Link
  8. Lown et al, 2016. Mulberry extract Reducose® total blood glucose in normoglycaemic adults. Diabetes UK Annual Conference
  9. Marx et al, 2016. 28-day repeat dose toxicological study of an aqueous extract on Morus alba. L.  J. Tox. Link
  10. Lown et al, 2015. Mulberry extract to modulate Blood glucose Responses in normoglycaemic adults (MULBERRY) study protocol for a randomized controlled study. TRIALS. Link

 Reducose® unpublished papers:

  1. PYN-IM-007. Impact of Reducose® on 13C breath recovery using the 13C sucrose breath test over an eight hour period – a randomized cross-over clinical trial in 18 participants
  2. REDUCE Study (2021): Reducose® mulberry extract dose-range study: understanding the impact on complex meals – a randomised, placebo controlled clinical trial
  3. PYN-IM-006 (2020): Impact of Reducose® (1%) on the glycaemic index and glycaemic response of white bread.
  4. PYN-IM-002a, 2014.  An open label, single center clinical study to assess the effects of Reducose® (5%) on the glycaemic index of common carbohydrates in an Indian population
  5. The effect of Reducose® on glucose tolerance in normal Wistar rats

 Mulberry leaf references:

  1. Asai et al. 2011. Effect of mulberry leaf extract enriched with DNJ on post prandial glycaemic control in subjects with impaired glucose metabolism. J. Diab. Inv. 2: 318-323. Kim et al., 2015. Mulberry extract improves postprandial glucose response in prediabetic subjects. J. Med. Food. 18: 306-313. Link
  2. Kimura et al, 2007. Food grade mulberry powder suppresses elevation of post-prandial blood glucose in humans. J. Agric. Food Chem. 55: 5869-5874. Link
  3. Kojima et al, 2010. Effects of mulberry leaf extract rich in 1-deoxynojirimycin on blood lipid profiles in humans. J. Clin. Biochem. Nutr. 47: 155-161. Link
  4. Chung et al., 2013. Acute intake of mulberry leaf extract affects postprandial glucose response after maltose loading. J. Func. Foods 5: 1502-1506. Link
  5. Mudra et al., 2007. Influence of mulberry leaf extract on blood glucose and breath hydrogen response to ingestion of 75 g sucrose by type-2 diabetic and control subjects. Diabetes Care 30: 1272-1274. Link
  6. Nakamura et al., 2009. Suppressive response of confections containing the extractive from leaves of Morus albaon postprandial blood glucose and insulin. Nutr. & Metab. Link
  7. Jozefczuk et al., 2017. Mulberry leaf extract decreases digestion and absorption of starch in healthy subjects. Adv. Med. Sci. 62: 302-306. Link
  8. Phimarn et al., 2017. Meta-analysis of efficacy of Morus alba to improve blood glucose and lipid profile. Eu. J. Nutr. 56: 1509-1521. Link

 References on importance of blood sugar control

  1. Jessie Inchauspé, Glucose Revolution: The life-changing power of balancing your blood sugar. London: Short Books, Octopus Publishing Group Ltd, 2022. Link
  2. Laura R Saslow et al., Twelve-month outcomes of a randomized trial of a moderate-carbohydrate versus very low-carbohydrate diet in overweight adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus or prediabetes. Nutr. & Diabetes 7, no.12. 2017. Link
  3. N M Wedick et al., Insulin resistance precedes weight loss in adults without diabetes: the Rancho Bernardo Study.  J. Epidemiol., 15 June 2001, 1199. Link
  4. Domenico Tricò et al., “Manipulating the sequence of food ingestion improves glycemic control in type 2 diabetic patients under free-living conditions,” Nutr. & diabetes 6, no. 8 (2016): e226-e226. Link
  5. Courtney R Changet al., Restricting carbohydrates at breakfast is sufficient to reduce 24-hour exposure to postprandial hyperglycemia and improve glycemic variability. Amer. J. Clin. Nutr. 2019 May 1;109(5):1302-1309. Link
  6. Paula Chandler-Laney et al., “Return of hunger following a relatively high carbohydrate breakfast is associated with earlier recorded glucose peak and nadir,” Appetite 80 (2014): 236-241. Link
  7. The effects of functional fiber on postprandial glycemia, energy intake, satiety, palatability and gastrointestinal wellbeing: a randomized crossover trial,” Nutr. J. 13, no. 1 (2014): 1-9. Link
  8. Hana Kahleova et al., “Eating two larger meals a day (breakfast and lunch) is more effective than six smaller meals in a reduced-energy regimen for patients with type 2 diabetes: a randomized crossover study,” Diabetol. 57, no. 8 (2014): 1552-1560. Link
  9. Andrew N Reynolds et al., “Advice to walk after meals is more effective for lowering postprandial glycaemia in type 2 diabetes mellitus than advice that does not specify timing: a randomized crossover study,” Diabetol. 59, no. 12 (2016): 2572-2578. Link